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Saya penggemar Musik Tradisional Indonesia terutama Gamelan Jawa dan Wayang Kulit, tetapi saya juga penggemar selengkapnya

Wayang Kulit (Shadow Puppets) - Part 6: Pendawa Lima (The 5 Pendawas) of Amarta Kingdom

OPINI | 31 December 2009 | 07:10 Dibaca: 2904   Komentar: 2   1

Dilandasi oleh niat untuk melestarikan dan mendokumentasikan Seni Budaya Tradisional Indonesia (Seni Musik, Seni Tari, Seni Sastra dan Seni Lukis) yang berasal dari seluruh penjuru Nusantara, maka kami membuat artikel ini agar dapat dibaca dan dinikmati oleh pengunjung secara luas. Sama sekali tidak ada maksud komersial, artikel ini banyak mengutip dari website atau blog lain tanpa dirubah, melainkan ditambah dengan gambar, link, flash video agar lebih menarik. Seandainya ada yang keberatan karena website atau blog nya dikutip mohon diberitahukan kepada kami, kami bersedia untuk menghapus.

Wayang Kulit (Shadow Puppets) - Part 6

Pendawa Lima (The 5 Pendawas) of Amarta Kingdom


Pandu Dewanata
Pandu Dewanata

Pandu Dewanata

Pandu Dewanata of Hastinapura had destined to have a short live, he died at young age. His soul was snatched by Yamadipati, the god of death while Pandu was making love with Madrim, his younger wife. Abiyasa, his father was very angry to gods, he went to Kahyangan (the abode of gods). He asked gods to revive Pandu, otherwise he would run amok.

The gods were worried if Abiyasa ran amok, he should ruin easily the Kahyangan. At last he could be persuaded by Guru telling that Pandu’s death was in accordance with destiny. No one including gods could not help. As a reward, Pandu was assigned as god, who took care the Crator-Kawah Candradimuka in heaven.

The legitimate heir of the throne was Pandu’s eldest son, as in accordance with Paugeran (traditional court customs and regulation). But Puntodewa was still a kid. Destarata was assigned as a viceroy of Hastinapura, waiting Puntadewa to be an adult. It was the beginning of the catastrophe in Hastinapura.

Pandu Dewanata had 5 sons called Pendawa Lima (The 5 Pendawas)

    From his marriage with Kunti Talibrata:

  1. Puntadewa (child name) or Yudistira
  2. Brotoseno (child name) or Bima or Werkudara
  3. Permadi (child name) or Arjuna
  4. From his marriage with Madrim:

  5. Pinten (child name) or Nakula
  6. Tangsen (child name) or Sadewa

  1. YudistiraAvoiding worse conflicts with their Korawa cousins and honoring the position of their uncle, Destarata as the ruler of Hastinapura. Pendawa had built their own kingdom of Amarta or Indrapasta with Yudistira as the king, assisted by a strong team of wise experts, consisted of his brothers and nephews. In necessity, Kresna, the wise and brilliant king of Dwarawati, a man with sharp vision was always available for advice and help. The obedient and clever servants-the Ponokawans-Semar, Gareng, Petruk and Bagong served Amarta with total loyalty.The Pendawa, who had gained a lot of various knowledge through court formal education in Hastinapura’s palace and experiences of self-denial mainly due to oppressive deeds by Korawa and their cronies, turned out to be champions of justice. They could manage perfectly all state affaires, justice, welfare and prosperity were guaranteed. All the citizens were happy. The success of Amarta were known outside its boundaries. It had good relation with more and more countries. A Rajasuya ceremony, attended by more than 100 kings was held as a sign of great respect to Yudistira as a great king. Except, Dwarawati kingdom, the closest allies of Amarta were the kingdoms of Cempala and Wirata. Besides having friendship with other countries, Amarta maintained excellent contact with many wise Bagawans/priests from various countries. This solid policy strengthened the position of Amarta. Yudistira was referred also as Darmakusuma, in honor of his spiritual father-Betara Darma, the god of justice. He was considered as the most honest man in the world. When he saw a terrible injustice, he could be angry and automatically he would transform (Triwikrama) as a huge white giant.Kresna always called him, Samiaji, his other name was Guna Talikrama. His child name was Puntodewa. He had a holy heirloom Jamus Kalimasada, for protection, truth and mastering the true knowledge of life (Ilmu Sejati). With his loyal wife Drupadi, he had a son Pancawala. (after the Baratayuda, he reigned again Hastinapura with his new name, Prabu Kalimataya. He had another wife, Dewi Kuntulwilaten).

    Bima or Werkudara
    Bima or Werkudara
  2. Bima or WerkudaraBima or Werkudara was referred also as Bayu Tanaya, in honor of his spiritual father Betara/god Bayu. His other names were: Dandum Wacana, Kusuma Waligita, Bondan Paksajandu. His name as a child was Arya Bratasena. He had his own palace, Jodipati, sometime he was also referred by the dalang/puppet-master as Satria Jodipati.The Pendawa wished to build their own kingdom outside the boundary of Hastina, as a way to avoid conflicts with their Korawa cousins. The new site was the jungle of Wanamarta. Consequently they started to cut some trees.The king/Prabu Arimba of Pringgadani disliked the Pendawa. He wanted to take revenge of his father Prabu Kala Tremboko’s death, who had been killed in a battle by Pandu, the Pendawa’s father.

    He ordered his brothers to attack and kill Pendawa. Arimbi, his younger sister was against his idea, she said that Pendawa were not guilty. Arimbi, a giant-woman, she was strong and had supernatural power. She argued her other brothers not to harm the good Pendawa. Upon seeing Bratasena, the biggest man of the Pendawa, she started to fall in love with him. Arimba was very angry to her.

    Bima or Werkudara
    Gatotkaca or Purbaya, son of Werkudara from his marriage with Arimbi

    A fight between Pendawa and the giants was unavoidable. The big and strong giant, Arimba was involved in a direct fight against the powerful Bratasena. Arimba, the most powerful giant of Pringgadani, could not match Bratasena ability, he was killed in the duel. After his death, upon Arimbi’s instruction, the battle stopped, and all the giants helped Pendawa to accomplish the job by cleaning the site and helping to construct the palace.

    Despite the loyalty of Arimbi to Pendawa, Bratasena did not want to take her as a wife. He did not want to marry a giant. In despair, Arimbi asked a help from Kunti, the mother of Pendawa. Kunti had a pity to Arimbi, although a giant but Arimbi was honest.

    Kunti had a strong mantra, she requested to gods to change Arimbi to be a beautiful woman. Her request was granted. There was no reason for Bratasena to reject her anymore.

    Once he became a king of Gilingwesi by the name of Prabu Tungguwasesa. From his marriage with Arimbi, he got a son, Gatotkaca or Purbaya who married with Pergiwa, Arjuna’s daughter.

    Arjuna or Indra Tanaya
    Arjuna or Indra Tanaya
  3. Arjuna or Indra Tanaya
  4. Betara/god Indra was his spiritual father. He had several names and wives (see: figures in wayang: Arjuna). The dalang/shadow-puppet-master, sometimes referred him as Satria Madukara, the name of his palace or Panengah Pendawa (the middle of Pendawa), he was no.3 son of the five Pendawa. From his wife Sembadra, Kresna’ sister (considered as the first wife) he had a son Abimanyu. Abimanyu’s marriage with Dewi Utari from Wirata, give a birth to Parikesit, the king of new Hastinapura.

    Another wife of Abimanyu was Siti Sundari, Kresna’s daughter. Abimanyu had been tortured cruelly by several Korawa before his death in Baratayuda. Arjuna was very angry and killed all his son’s killers in revenge. Bambang Irawan, his other son who married Titisari, Kresna’s daughter was also killed in Baratayuda. He and his enormous and strong enemy- a giant – Kalasrenggi died together in the duel. Arjuna treated his wives equally, but his best care for sons was Abimanyu. Semar criticized him seriously. Even Semar had to arrange the wedding ceremony of Sumitra, his son with Larasati. The wedding helped by gods was successful and extravagant, Arjuna was ashamed to Semar and apologized.

    Jimambang, his other wife, was the daughter of Resi Wilwuk of Pringgadani. From Resi Wilwuk, he had a mantra, called: Jayengkaton. Spelling Jayengkaton, he could see the unseen spirits and world. With Banowati, Duryudana’s wife, he had deep love affaires. Their love relation was continued after the death of Duryudana. After Banowati had been killed by Aswatama, Arjuna was very sad. Then he married Citrahoyi, the widow of Arjunapati, who resembled to Banowati.

    From Dresanala, his goddess wife, the daughter of Betara Brama, he got a sakti son Wisanggeni. Wisanggeni was afraid to nobody, even to gods. Like Bima and Antaseno, he spoke in Ngoko language. His fate was the same as Antasena’s, he did not involved in Baratayuda.


  5. Nakula
  6. Nakula was the fourth Pendawa. His child name was Pinten. Besides a ksatria warrior, he was an expert in agriculture. During Baratayuda, king Salya of Mandaraka was terrific fighter, many Pendawa’ soldiers had become victims. The clever Kresna knew Salya’s love to Nakula and Sadewa. Nakula and Sadewa, his own nephews, the sons of his younger sister, Madrim visited Salya in his tent. Salya whole heartedly cared very much Pendawa, especially Nakula and Sadewa. He told him his secret power. The only one who could defeat him was Yudistira. He asked also Nakula and Sadewa to become kings of Mandaraka after the Baratayuda. Both honored the agreements and reigned Mandaraka. Nakula married Padmasari, the daughter of Widura, Dewi Suyati and Srengganawati. His court domain was Sawojajar.

  7. Sadewa
  8. Sadewa was the youngest of Pendawa. His child name was Tangsen. All other Pendawa cared very much Nakula and Sadewa. The twin, since their tender age had experienced bitter life. They grew stronger and became ksatria-warrior. Sadewa had his own retreat in Bumi Retawu. He was an expert in animal husbandry. Widura’s daughter, Padmawati was his first wife.

    He married also Endang Sadarmi, the daughter of Resi Tembang Petra from the hermit of Parangalas. He got a son, Raden Sabekti. His third wife was Srengginiwati, he got a daughter Dewi Tanjung. Sadewa through asceticism had mastered the true knowledge of life. He was able to hold an exorcism ritual (Javanese: Ruwatan) for the evil-goddess, Betari Durga. She was purified and gained back her normal form physically and spiritually, as Dewi Uma, the wife of Betara Guru.

Thanks to: Joglosemar

MP3 Wayang kulit performance by Late Ki Narto Sabdo - Lakon: Pendhawa Ngenger

Thanks to: APDN Semarang Dalam Kenangan

Ki Narto Sabdo - Pendhawa Ngenger 01/16
Ki Narto Sabdo - Pendhawa Ngenger 02/16
Ki Narto Sabdo - Pendhawa Ngenger 03/16
Ki Narto Sabdo - Pendhawa Ngenger 04/16
Ki Narto Sabdo - Pendhawa Ngenger 05/16
Ki Narto Sabdo - Pendhawa Ngenger 06/16
Ki Narto Sabdo - Pendhawa Ngenger 07/16
Ki Narto Sabdo - Pendhawa Ngenger 08/16
Ki Narto Sabdo - Pendhawa Ngenger 09/16
Ki Narto Sabdo - Pendhawa Ngenger 10/16
Ki Narto Sabdo - Pendhawa Ngenger 11/16
Ki Narto Sabdo - Pendhawa Ngenger 12/16
Ki Narto Sabdo - Pendhawa Ngenger 13/16
Ki Narto Sabdo - Pendhawa Ngenger 14/16
Ki Narto Sabdo - Pendhawa Ngenger 15/16
Ki Narto Sabdo - Pendhawa Ngenger 16/16

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